Process

Direct Water Reclamation

Successful direct reclamation as practiced in Windhoek is based on the practice of diverting industrial and other potentially toxic waste water from the main domestic waste water stream. The domestic waste water is treated to produce an effluent of adequate and consistent quality which is further treated to produce safe potable water. In addition, it is important to continuously maintain a multiple-barrier treatment sequence as a safeguard against pathogens and other potentially harmful and unwanted contaminants.

Intensive bio-monitoring programs and other tests are carried out on reclaimed water, and no negative health effects have been detected s an result of the use of reclaimed water since 1968.

In order to ensure successful direct reclamation, the multiple-barrier approach ensures that at least two (in many cases three and more) effective removal processes are in place for each crucial contaminant that could be harmful to human health or aesthetically objectionable.